La Dédiabolisation

Martin Michelot byl spoluautorem článku La Dédiabolisation, ve kterém analyzuje úspěch francouzské ultrapravicové strany Front National, její politický program a dopad potenciálního zvolení Marine Le Pen ve francouzských prezidentských volbách na Francii a Evropskou unii.

Martin Michelot byl spoluautorem článku La Dédiabolisation, ve kterém analyzuje úspěch francouzské ultrapravicové strany Front National, její politický program a dopad potenciálního zvolení Marine Le Pen ve francouzských prezidentských volbách na Francii a Evropskou unii.

At its core, FN is built around a coherent rejection of liberalism, both in economic and cultural terms. The party has always been culturally illiberal, but its new economic outlook is a real evolution from its strongly anti-communist tradition and its support for liberal economic reforms in favor of small businesses. While her father wanted to be a “French Reagan” in the 1980s, Marine Le Pen has embraced a protectionist agenda and Marxist rhetoric. This has also enabled FN to reinforce its opposition to the EU, which is seen as weakening national sovereignty and promoting foreign interests while imposing ultra-liberal economic policies in France.

 What could an FN victory in the presidential elections mean for France and Europe? The implementation of its program would have three implications in the relatively short-term future: a constitutional crisis in France, the end of the European project as we know it, and an uncontrolled increase of the public debt that could potentially lead to more economic instability in Europe.

 One of the keys of FN’s rise to national prominence has been the normalization of its image, an effort to break through the “glass ceiling” that has kept the party from winning major elections. When Marine Le Pen took over after her father’s forty-year reign, the FN had a hard-line anti-immigration, anti-Semitic image. She set out to change that by refocusing on economic issues with a pronounced anti-EU bent. This process, known in French as dédiabolisation (literally “undemonization”), also brought in new faces to shift the party away from her father’s numerous and well-documented excesses. The prized recruit was Florian Philippot, trained at the elite École Nationale d’Administration (ENA) like many other politicians. Philippot flirted with the left in his formative years, but is now Le Pen’s lieutenant and one of the few palatable faces FN can feature in the media.

 Mainstream parties have also dangerously fostered anger and disillusionment among parts of their own electorates by campaigning on illiberal measures and failing to deliver once in power. Their use of illiberal discourses can be explained by their need to appeal to the most radical parts of the electorate in order to win elections. For the mainstream right, it is essential to obtain the support of voters who are particularly sensitive to immigration, tradition, and security issues; for the mainstream left, victory can only be achieved with the help of voters opposed to the liberalization of the French economy. The last two presidents provide striking examples of this strategy: In 2007, Sarkozy ran a campaign focused on identity and the fight against crime, while Hollande won in 2012 after claiming to be “the enemy of the liberal financial world.”

Celý článek můžete přečíst v angličtině na stránkách Berlin Policy Journal zde. Článek je také dostupný v tištěné formě v březnovém/květnovém vydání německého magazínu Internationale Politik.

#Francie #Front National #Marine Le Pen #prezidentské volby #populismus

Martin Michelot
Zástupce ředitele

Expertíza: NATO a transatlantická bezpečnost, evropská zahraniční politika, francouzská politika/volby/společnost, zahraniční politika USA, politika a volby, sport a diplomacie.



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